Glossary of Terms


a type of statistical significance that indicates whether or not the difference between two groups’ averages most likely reflects a “real” difference in the population from which the groups were sampled.

Tactical intervention:

Low-cost, temporary, and strategically-placed urban design interventions.

Tactical (street):

The ability to accurately frame the intelligence picture and make proper assessments.


Specific actions through which strategy is implemented.


The specified result(s), often expressed by a value of an indicator(s), that a project, program, or policy is intended to achieve.

Target Group:

The specific individuals, groups, or organizations for whose benefit the intervention is undertaken.

Target patient population:

Refers to the patients the medicine is intended for.


Figure out precisely how to focus limited resources on doing what is likely to yield the greatest result.

Test and receive feedback:

The testing phase in the design process allows the intended users to interact with the prototype. It is an opportunity to gather feedback from users and to create a new and improved iteration of ideas.

Thematic Evaluation:

An evaluation that focuses on a specific cross cutting area.

Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF):

A model used for implementation studies to assess and address factors that impact behavior.

Theory-informed approach:

An approach that selects which theory(ies), or theoretical framework(s), are likely to inform the pathways of change.

Theory of change:

A comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a desired change is expected to happen in a particular context. It is focused in particular on mapping out or “filling in” what has been described as the “missing middle” between what a program or change initiative does (its activities or interventions) and how these lead to desired goals being achieved.

Thematic analysis:

A method for identifying, analyzing and reporting patterns within data.

Thinking holistically:

The inquiry of a complex whole, sensing large-scale patterns and reacting to them. In the case of business organizations, holistic thinking takes into account its purpose, values, function in its environment, process, and structure.


Sequence activities in such a way to be able to take the initiative, retain it, build momentum, and take advantage of particular moments of opportunity.

Total Economic Impact:

A study that provides a rigorous cost and benefit analysis framework that explicitly incorporates an evaluation of future technology and business flexibility and associated risk.

Transformational change:

A process designed to create significant change in the culture and work processes of an organization and produce significant improvement in performance.

Transition Design:

An area of design research, practice and study that proposes design-led societal transition toward more sustainable futures and argues that design has a key role to play in these transitions. It applies an understanding of the interconnectedness of social, economic, political and natural systems to address problems at all levels of spatiotemporal scale in ways that improve quality of life.


A project, program, or policy that is the subject of an evaluation.


A process for sorting injured people into groups based on their need for or likely benefit from immediate medical treatment.


A test to see if a treatment works and is safe for people.


External events or circumstances that may produce very uncomfortable emotional or psychiatric symptoms.

Trusted community leaders:

Local residents or local business operators with both established roots in the community and acceptance as “persons of significant standing” by other members of the community. TCLs not only work directly with law enforcement but are also expected to win the support of the larger community.